Presentation

Resumen

La estrategia de economía circular de la UE desarrolla un conjunto de medidas para promover una mayor reutilización del agua siempre que sea rentable y segura para la salud y el medio ambiente.

El objetivo principal del proyecto CLEaN-TOUR es desarrollar conocimientos, tecnologías y herramientas sobre el tratamiento de aguas residuales para facilitar la reutilización de agua en ciudades turísticas. Para ello, CLEaN-TOUR analizará dos escenarios de tratamiento: sistemas centralizados, con una planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales convencional (de una ciudad turística), y sistemas descentralizados que consisten en segregar corrientes de agua residual (por ejemplo, aguas grises) y tratarlas insitu donde se generan, por ejemplo en un hotel. El proyecto CLEaN-TOUR abordará tres temas principales relacionados con la reutilización en ciudades turísticas: (i) la eliminación de patógenos y microcontaminantes, (ii) la evaluación de los riesgos potenciales de reutilización del agua, y (iii) la complejidad en seleccionar el escenario (centralizado o descentralizado) más adecuado y las correspondientes tecnologías de tratamiento.

En primer lugar, se desarrollarán nuevos métodos analíticos para muestras de agua y sólidas (plantas) para microcontaminantes (incluidos en la lista de vigilancia de la Decisión UE 2015/495 y en las Directivas 2013/39/CE y 2008/105/CE) y parámetros microbiológicos no convencionales (incluidos en el borrador de legislación europea sobre requisitos mínimos de calidad para la reutilización).

Posteriormente, se desarrollarán diferentes tecnologías con el objetivo de aumentar la calidad de las aguas tratadas. Los biorreactores de membrana osmótica, los ecosistemas hidropónicos y la electro-oxidación solar se ensayarán como sistemas descentralizados y como tratamientos multibarrera para microcontaminantes y patógenos. Los resultados obtenidos se compararán con otras tecnologías tanto en sistemas centralizados como descentralizados. CLEaN-TOUR evaluará también el uso de aguas regeneradas para la reutilización urbana (riego de plantas ornamentales y comestibles y otros usos de reciclaje) y su riesgo asociado en escenarios centralizados y descentralizados.

Finalmente, se integrarán los conocimientos generados en una herramienta de ayuda a la toma de decisiones para facilitar la evaluación de esquemas centralizados y descentralizados de reutilización, apoyar la comparación y selección de las tecnologías de tratamiento más adecuadas y sensibilizar sobre la importancia de la reutilización del agua en ciudades turísticas. El proyecto CLEAN-TOUR demostrará la reutilización segura en riego y otros usos, ilustrando así la reutilización del agua como un aspecto clave hacia una economía circular en las regiones turísticas.

El equipo multidisciplinar del proyecto CLEaN-TOUR garantiza el logro exitoso de los objetivos del proyecto, los cuáles están claramente alineados con dos de los desafíos sociales incluidos en la Estrategia Española de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación 2013-2020 y con el programa europeo Horizonte 2020 "Acción sobre el cambio climático, medio ambiente, la eficiencia de los recursos y las materias primas". Todos los investigadores de los dos subproyectos han participado en varios proyectos de investigación europeos y nacionales, así como en contratos de I+D con empresas. Además, el IP del Subproyecto 1 y también coordinador de CLEaN-TOUR ha sido IP varias veces, así como coordinador de proyectos nacionales y de la UE.

Summary

The new EU circular economy package is committed developing a number of actions to promote further uptake of water reuse wherever it is cost-efficient and safe for health and the environment.

The main objective of the CLEaN-TOUR project is to develop knowledge, technologies and tools on wastewater treatment in order to facilitate expanding urban water reuse in touristic regions. In order to do so, the CLEaN-TOUR project will analyze two wastewater treatment scenarios: centralized systems, with a conventional wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of a touristic city, and decentralized systems which consists of applying water segregation, i.e. grey water and treatment onsite where the wastewater is generated, i.e. in hotels. The CLEaN-TOUR project will tackle three main issues regarding water reuse in touristic cities: (i) the removal of pathogens and micropollutants, (ii) the evaluation of the potential risks of water reuse, and (iii) the difficulties in selecting the most adequate scenario (centralized or decentralized) and related treatment technologies.

First, in the CLEaN-TOUR project new analytical procedures for micropollutants (included in the Watch List of the EU Decision 2015/495 and in the Directives 2013/39/EC and 2008/105/EC) and non-conventional microbiological parameter (included in the EU legislation draft about minimum quality requirements for water reuse in agricultural irrigation and aquifer recharge) will be developed for water and solid (i.e. plant) samples.

After that, different technologies will be developed with the objective of increasing the quality of the reclaimed waters. Osmotic membrane bioreactors, hydroponic technologies and solar electro-oxidation will be developed as decentralized systems and as safety multibarrier treatments for micropollutants and pathogens. The results obtained will be compared with other technologies in both centralized and decentralized systems. In order to complement the efficiency results of the technologies, the use of reclaimed water for urban water reuse (irrigation of urban gardens, urban farming, hotel water recycling) and its associated risk will be evaluated in centralized and decentralized scenarios.

Finally, the knowledge generated will be encapsulated in a decision support tool in order to facilitate the assessment of centralized and decentralized water reuse schemes, to support the comparison and selection of the most feasible treatment technologies, and to raise awareness about the importance of water reuse in touristic cities. The CLEaN-TOUR project will demonstrate the safe use of reclaimed water for irrigation and other uses, thus illustrating water reuse as a step forward towards a circular economy in touristic regions.

The multidisciplinary team behind the CLEaN-TOUR project backs the proposal and guarantees a successful achievement of project objectives, which are clearly aligned with two of the societal challenges included in Estrategia Española de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación 2013-2020 and with the European program Horizon 2020 “Action on climate change, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials”. All researchers of the two subprojects have participated in several European and National research projects as well as R+D contracts with companies. Additionally, the PI of Subproject 1 and CLEaN-TOUR coordinator has been PI several times, as well as coordinator of National and EU projects.

General objectives

1.
To optimize innovative wastewater and greywater treatment technologies to produce reclaimed water for reuse in touristic regions.

2.
To study the removal of a broad range of micropollutants and pathogens of concern for water reuse through these innovative treatment technologies.

3.
To integrate innovative biological, membrane-based and AOP processes for reliable reuse in both centralized and decentralized scenarios.

4.
To evaluate the use of reclaimed water for irrigation of ornamental and edible plants and for other uses inside touristic installations and inside the city.

5.
To integrate the knowledge generated in a decision support tool to raise awareness and facilitate the complex assessment of water reuse scenarios and required technologies.

Specific objectives

1.
Develop analytical procedures for selected pharmaceutical active compounds, endocrine disruptors and other compounds of the Watch list (EU Directive 2015/495) in water and solid matrices (G. Buttiglieri responsible).

2.
Development and integration of osmotic membrane bioreactor and hydroponic ecosystem technologies for the removal of micropollutants and pathogens in greywater treatment within a decentralized system (Hotel Samba in Lloret) (J. Comas responsible).

3.
Evaluate the reuse of OMBR effluents for irrigation of ornamental and edible plants in the hydroponic system and for other water reuse purposes inside the hotel (G. Buttiglieri responsible).

4.
Evaluate the risks stemming from the use of reclaimed water in both centralized and decentralized scenarios (J. Comas responsible).

5.
Encapsulate the knowledge generated in a relational database and a web-based scenario analysis to facilitate the complex assessment of centralized and decentralized water reuse schemes and technologies (J. Comas responsible).

6.
Develop analytical procedures for non-conventional microbiological parameters in water and solid matrices.

Experimental systems

Tossa de Mar WWTP: Centralized scenario

The Tossa WWTP implements primary and secondary treatment, based on activated sludge technology, for organic matter and suspended solids removal and has the capacity to serve a population of 43,000 inhabitants from a centralized collection system from the municipality of Tossa de Mar. Part of the secondary effluent is tertiary treated (coagulation and flocculation, sand filter, UV and Cl2) and reused for irrigation of municipal gardens. The average flow rate in 2015 was 2,000 m3/d, with a very important seasonable variability (going from 27,500 m3 in February to 130,800 m3 in August 2015).

Hotel Samba: Decentralized scenario

Hotel Samba (http://en.sambahotels.com/), a large 3-star hotel resort with 441 rooms, is a representative Euro-Mediterranean resort as it presents large facilities and faces similar water needs and challenges of most touristic facilities in Europe, which will enhance the further uptake of the project. In addition, it is located in an extremely touristic area of the Spanish Mediterranean coast with high water requirements and with frequent water scarcity concerns, especially in summer. Considerable similarities between this hotel and any other touristic complex are expected (areas in the resort, inlet and outlet waters, current water management practices, qualified personnel, etc.). Hotel Samba is certified by EMAS and ISO 14001. Its water use ranges from 25,000 to 34,000 m3/year (from 100 to 135 L/client/day). It already implements a greywater reuse system (from 13,500 to 15,000 m3/year of reused water) at full scale for water closets. Hotel Samba hosted the demo site for the demEAUmed project (FP7 Water Inno-Demo http://www.demeaumed.eu/) for an optimal and safe closed water cycle. It is important to note that demEAUmed project only focused on water reuse without any concern for nutrient or energy recovery, nor on the safety of reclaimed water in terms of microbiological indicators. The CLEaN-TOUR initiative, moreover, addresses all of these concerns as well as the analyses of a very broad range of micropollutants.

Methodology

CLEaN-TOUR: Circular economy to facilitate urban water reuse in a touristic city: centralized or decentralized?

WP 1: Decentralized greywater treatment in hotel SAMBA

Task 1.1. Set-up and start-up of lab-scale installations for OMBR

Task 1.2. Experimental optimization of greywater treatment with OMBR

Task 1.3. Hydroponic constructed wetland fed with OMBR effluents

WP 2: Coordination and transversal activities

Task 2.1. Coordination and project management

Task 2.2. Dissemination activities

Task 2.3. Set up of analytical techniques

Task 2.4. Seasonal monitoring of standard parameters, organic micropollutants and pathogens in centralized and decentralized scenarios

Task 2.5. Risk assessment of the reclaimed water in the different scenarios

WP 3: Knowledge integration and encapsulation

Task 3.1. Relational database for water reuse schemes

Task 3.2. Web-based scenario analysis framework

Task 3.3. Workshops for co-design and testing

Impact

Stakeholders

Logo Observations
Telwesa S.A. is an engineering SME company. They design and install innovative solution used in wastewater reuse processes. They are experts on installing membranes and advanced oxidation plants (i.e. electro-oxidation), among other the pilot plant that will be used in this project. As an SME they are interested on the innovations of the sector and they will support the project directly with their knowledge.
The CWP as a Catalan cluster of the sustainable use of water, formed by more than 65 entities (companies and research centers) involved in the water cycle, works for promoting projects and multilevel collaboration for developing innovative and sustainable solutions for the global water needs. In this sense, the CWP is highly interested in water reuse projects, focused on the transition from linear to circular economy models
The Consorci de la Costa Brava (CCB) is a public administration that manages the water resources in the coast area of Girona. The wastewater treatment plant that will be used in this project is operated by CCB.
Samba Hotel site is located in an extremely touristic area of the Spanish Mediterranean (Lloret de Mar) cost with high water requirements and with frequent water scarcity concerns, especially in summer. The study of the decentralized scheme of this project will be carried out in this site.
Alchemia nova is a Austrian company specialist in the development of hydroponic wetlands for water treatment. They will be involved as expert advisors in the construction of the hydroponic wetlands used in this project.
Radtke Biotechnik is a German company specialist in the implementation of biological findings in technical applications and development of hydroponic wetlands for water treatment. They will be involved as expert advisors in the construction of the hydroponic wetlands used in this project.
Capsite association of Girona: business association that gathers 76 campsites and represent 90% of the campsite capacity of the area Girona (Costa Brava and Pyrenees of Girona) and so representing a huge water consumer.
EMACBSA has managed a total of 18 wastewater systems, which treat the wastewater of the 27 municipalities in the coastal area of Girona’s province (including Tossa de Mar). These municipalities are grouped in the Consortium of the Costa Brava.
Teqma: Spanish SME dedicated to the commercialization and development of innovative technologies for water treatment and reuse

Advisory board

Name Observations
Jorg Drëwes Chair Professor of Urban Water Systems Engineering at TUM and Chair of the Water Reuse Specialist Group of the International Water Association (IWA)
Lluís Sala (CCB) Supra-municipal organism in charge of the management of the global water cycle of the 27 municipalities of the Girona
Xavier Amores (CWP) The Catalan Water Partnership (CWP) is the Catalan Cluster of the sustainable use of water, located in the North East of Spain
Giuliana Ferrero (IHE-Delft) Senior Lecturer in Water Supply Engineering at IHE Delft Institute for Water Education
Laura Alcalde Sanz (JRC) Researcher of JRC and expert in European water reuse legislation
Enrique Fernández Escalante (PTEA) Secretario técnico de la Plataforma Tecnológica Española del Agua
SUEZ

Research Team

ICRA members

Name Observations
Gianluigi Buttiglieri Dr. Gianluigi Buttiglieri is PhD in Sanitary and Environmental Engineering from Politecnico di Milano. He is research scientist at ICRA (Catalan Institute for Water Research, Girona, Spain). His research activity is on the fate of organic micropollutants in the environment and in water and wastewater technologies as well as on water reuse, decision support systems and circular economy issues.

Contact: gbuttiglieri@icra.cat
Esther Mendoza Esther Mendoza is MSc in Environmental Sciences by Wageningen University (The Netherlands). As PhD student of the project, her research activity is focused on the removal of pollutants from greywater with membrane technologies and constructed wetlands in the framework of Circular Economy.

Contact: emendoza@icra.cat
Joaquim Comas Associate Professor of the Chemical Engineering Dept of the University of Girona and Senior Researcher at the Catalan Institute for Water Research. His research topics include: Multicriteria decision support tools for environmental systems. Advanced modelling, control and sustainable assessment of urban water systems. MBR, integrated membrane systems and forward osmosis for wastewater treatment and water reuse. Membrane recycling. Removal of micropollutants. Nature-based solutions to foster circular economy in cities.

Contact: jcomas@icra.cat
Mira Petrovic ICREA Research Professor at ICRA. Main expertise is in the field of analytical environmental chemistry, specifically analysis of trace organic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, endocrine disrupting compounds and surfactants.

Contact: mpetrovic@icra.cat
Mira Celic MSc in Environmental Engineering, Predoctoral Researcher, Water quality area, ICRA Target analysis and high resolution mass spectrometry analysis of wastewater derived contaminants

Contact: mcelic@icra.cat

External researchers

Name Observations
Natasa Atanasova Associate Professor at the University of Ljubljana. Innovative Technologies for Resource Efficient Cities.

Contact: natasa.atanasova@fgg.uni-lj.si
Gaetan Blandin Postdoctoral research at LEQUIA, University of Girona. Forward osmosis and osmotic membrane bioreactors for water reuse.

Contact: gaetan.blandin@lequia.udg.cat

Catalan Institute for Water Research

Science and Technology Park of the University of Girona, H2O Building

Emili Grahit 101 - 17003 Girona

Phone: +34 972 183380

Website: https://www.icra.cat/index.php?lang=3

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